It is known that autophagy maintains a balance among the processes of protein, lipid, and Carbohydrates Synthesis , degradation, and recycling. Autophagy generally plays a protective role against the toxic effects of alcohol consumption; examples include liver diseases (Yang et al., 2014a), pancreatitis (Fortunato et al., 2009), and brain neurotoxicity (Chen et al., 2012a). In contrast, autophagy is detrimental to some of the alcohol-induced diseases, including heart contractile dysfunction (Guo et al., 2012) and chronic skeletal muscle dysfunction (Thapaliya et al., 2014). Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis show severe muscle loss.

Synthetic oligosaccharide-based vaccines are promising alternatives to conventional antibacterial carbohydrate vaccines prepared with isolated polysaccharides. Unlike polysaccharides, synthetic glycans are well defined, contaminant-free, and accessible even for pathogens that cannot be fermented or show limited carbohydrate biosynthesis in vitro. However, identifying synthetic glycan B cell epitopes that induce protective immunity has traditionally been a time-consuming trial-and-error process, as predicting the immunogenicity of an oligosaccharide by means of structure alone is not straightforward. We here describe how synthetic oligosaccharide epitopes for candidate vaccines can be rationally identified prior to preclinical immunogenicity studies. Epitopes are selected on the basis of their recognition by antibodies associated with protection from disease in humans or small animals. In addition, we show how murine antibody responses to a large oligosaccharide can inform the identification of a minimal B cell epitope that may help designing easy to synthesize vaccine candidates. The procedures, exemplified with a surface carbohydrate of Clostridium difficile, may serve as a guideline for selecting protective oligosaccharide epitopes for vaccines against infectious and malignant diseases.

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Carbohydrates SynthesisNews
It is known that autophagy maintains a balance among the processes of protein, lipid, and Carbohydrates Synthesis , degradation, and recycling. Autophagy generally plays a protective role against the toxic effects of alcohol consumption; examples include liver diseases (Yang et al., 2014a), pancreatitis (Fortunato et al., 2009), and brain...